Top 5 Takeaways

  1. Racial and ethnic disparities in influenza hospitalizations and vaccination coverage have persisted in the U.S. from 2009–10 through 2021–22, with Black, American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN), and Hispanic adults experiencing higher hospitalization rates and lower vaccination coverage compared to White adults.
  2. Despite overall increases in adult influenza vaccination coverage from 40.5% to 49.4% between the 2010–11 and 2021–22 seasons, disparities remained, particularly among Black and Hispanic adults.
  3. Barriers such as lack of medical insurance, personal health care providers, and routine medical checkups contributed to lower vaccination rates among minority groups.
  4. Efforts to increase influenza vaccination through nontraditional settings and improve vaccine awareness and confidence in minority communities are essential to address these disparities.
  5. Persistent disparities highlight the need for tailored public health campaigns and culturally responsive healthcare practices to improve influenza outcomes in racial and ethnic minority communities.

Original Article Author and Citation

Corresponding Author

Carla L. Black,

Suggested Citation

Black CL, O’Halloran A, Hung M, et al. Vital Signs: Influenza Hospitalizations and Vaccination Coverage by Race and Ethnicity—United States, 2009–10 Through 2021–22 Influenza Seasons. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2022;71:1366–1373. DOI:


The report analyzes influenza hospitalization and vaccination rates by race and ethnicity over a 12–13-year period. It highlights persistent racial and ethnic disparities, with Black, AI/AN, and Hispanic adults having higher hospitalization rates and lower vaccination coverage compared to White adults.


The study utilized data from FluSurv-NET for influenza-associated hospitalizations and BRFSS for vaccination coverage, analyzing trends by race and ethnicity.


The findings suggest multifactorial reasons behind these disparities, including healthcare access barriers, chronic medical conditions, and structural racism. The study notes that provider recommendations and culturally responsive practices are key to addressing these disparities.


The study emphasizes the need for national, state, and community-level efforts to build trust, increase access to vaccination services, and combat misinformation among racial and ethnic minority communities to reduce disparities in influenza outcomes.



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