Top 5 Takeaways

  1. Low Vaccination Rates Among Young Children: As of July 2022, only 4% of children aged 6 months–4 years had received at least one dose of the COVID-19 vaccine.
  2. Parental Openness Varies: 59% of the unvaccinated children had parents open to vaccination, while 37% had parents reluctant to vaccinate.
  3. Influence of Sociodemographic Factors: Parental openness to vaccination was higher among Hispanic, Black, and Asian parents compared to White parents, and lower in rural areas compared to urban areas.
  4. Role of Healthcare Providers: Healthcare provider recommendations and parental confidence in the vaccine’s safety are key factors influencing vaccination decisions.
  5. Variation by Income and Education: Higher vaccination rates were observed in households with higher income and maternal education levels.

Original Article Author and Citation

Corresponding Author

Tammy A. Santibanez, .

Suggested Citation

Santibanez TA, Zhou T, Black CL, et al. Sociodemographic Variation in Early Uptake of COVID-19 Vaccine and Parental Intent and Attitudes Toward Vaccination of Children Aged 6 Months–4 Years — United States, July 1–29, 2022. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2022;71:1479–1484. DOI:


This survey highlighted the early uptake of COVID-19 vaccines among children aged 6 months to 4 years in the U.S., focusing on sociodemographic factors influencing vaccination. It also revealed that a small percentage of children in this age group were vaccinated, with significant variations in parental intent and attitudes across different racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic groups.


The CDC conducted the National Immunization Survey-Child COVID Module (NIS-CCM) in July 2022. This involved 4,496 interviews with parents or guardians about their children’s vaccination status and their intent to vaccinate. The survey collected data on sociodemographic characteristics, parental beliefs about COVID-19, and the type of vaccination place.


The results of these interviews highlighted the need for healthcare provider recommendations and information dissemination about vaccine safety to increase vaccination among young children. It noted that confidence in vaccine safety varied significantly among different racial, ethnic, and income groups. The study also pointed out the importance of medical places over pharmacies for vaccinating young children.


The report concludes that increasing COVID-19 vaccination coverage among young children requires addressing parental concerns about vaccine safety and enhancing healthcare provider recommendations. There’s a substantial proportion of parents open to vaccinating their children, suggesting potential for increased vaccination rates with appropriate interventions.


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