Top 5 Takeaways

  1. Initial Disparities in Vaccination Coverage: Early in the vaccination campaign, Asian and non-Hispanic White adults had the highest COVID-19 vaccination coverage, while coverage was lower among Hispanic, non-Hispanic Black, Native Hawaiian/other Pacific Islander, Multiple or Other races, and American Indian/Alaska Native adults.
  2. Narrowing of Disparities by November 2021: By the end of November 2021, vaccination coverage became similar for non-Hispanic Black, Hispanic, Native Hawaiian/other Pacific Islander, and non-Hispanic White adults, though disparities persisted for American Indian/Alaska Native and multiple or other race adults.
  3. Importance of Equitable Vaccination Access: Equitable access to COVID-19 vaccinations, including booster doses, is essential for reducing racial and ethnic disparities in vaccination coverage and improving public health outcomes.
  4. Variation in Coverage by Subgroups: Within racial and ethnic groups, vaccination coverage varied significantly, indicating the need for tailored approaches to address disparities and improve vaccination rates.
  5. Strategies to Improve Equity: Tailored efforts, including community partnerships and trusted sources of information, are crucial for increasing vaccination coverage among groups with persistent disparities, aiming to achieve vaccination equity and prevent new disparities in booster dose coverage.

Original Article Author and Citation

Corresponding Author

Jennifer L. Kriss,

Suggested Citation

Kriss JL, Hung M, Srivastav A, et al. COVID-19 Vaccination Coverage, by Race and Ethnicity — National Immunization Survey Adult COVID Module, United States, December 2020–November 2021. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2022;71:757–763. DOI:


The study analyzed data from the National Immunization Survey Adult COVID Module to assess disparities in COVID-19 vaccination coverage by race and ethnicity among U.S. adults from December 2020 to November 2021. It found initial disparities in vaccination coverage, which narrowed for some racial and ethnic groups by the end of November 2021, although disparities persisted for American Indian/Alaska Native and Multiracial  or “Other” race adults.


This analysis used data from a random-digit–dialed cellular telephone survey of noninstitutionalized U.S. adults, weighted to represent the U.S. adult population. The study assessed vaccination coverage among adults who reported their race and ethnicity and used Kaplan-Meier survival analysis to estimate cumulative vaccination coverage over time.


The report discusses the initial disparities in vaccination coverage, the narrowing of these disparities by November 2021, and the importance of equitable vaccination access. It highlights the need for tailored efforts to increase vaccination coverage among groups with persistent disparities.


Equitable access to COVID-19 vaccination is crucial for reducing disparities in vaccination coverage, morbidity, and mortality by race and ethnicity. The strategies successful in reducing disparities in primary dose vaccination could be applied to ensure equitable booster dose coverage, emphasizing the need for tailored community efforts.

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